25 | MP introduction

would, however, throw no light on propaganda as it is actually
practised at the present time, and I have done my best to avoid
them. At present, any effective propaganda among the mass must
bear the marks of the mass mind. No mass propaganda can be succ-
essful unless it gives expression to, and fosters, hatred, fear, con-
ceit and deceit. And it is successful to the degree that it succ-
eeds in mobilising these mental forces for some political or
social purpose.

This statement, which sums up the results of our analysis, does
not condemn all propaganda. It merely states the limitations
which its social context must impose upon modern mass propaganda.
And it is only with this mass propaganda that we deal here, with
a propaganda addressed to a promiscuous assemblage of people
who are temporarily bound together by a common fear, hatred or

I distinguish 'mass propaganda' sharply from two other kinds
of 'promotional activity' which falls outside the scope of this

There is first a neutral kind of publicity, which makes known,
without any attempt at constraining. It serves as a means of over-
coming our spatial dispersion. Psychologically, a sign in a shop
to the effect that "Here you can buy X's soap", which enables
the customer to know where he can get what he wants, is a diff-
erent thing from an advertisement which shows a girl in her bath
using X's soap - thereby inducing people to use it.

Secondly, there is the 'training' which is exercised by and
within social cells.[30] Small-scale training differs in many
ways from large-scale 'social engineering'. Within a limited